RESPON SITOGENETIK PENDUDUK DAERAH RADIASI ALAM TINGGI DI KABUPATEN MAMUJU, SULAWESI BARAT

Zubaidah Alatas, Yanti Lusiyanti, Sofiati P, Dwi Ramadhani, Masnelly L, Viria A S

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17146/jstni.2012.13.1.932

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ABSTRAK

RESPON SITOGENETIK PENDUDUK DAERAH RADIASI ALAM TINGGI DIKABUPATEN MAMUJU, SULAWESI BARAT. Manusia di dunia menerima paparan radiasialam baik eksternal maupun internal. Total paparan tahunan dari radiasi alam dengan latarnormal adalah 2,4 mSv, sedangkan daerah dengan tingkat paparan radiasi alam mencapai 20mSv atau lebih dikategorikan sebagai High Natural Background Radiation (HNBR). Tingkatpaparan radiasi di HNBR dianggap sebagai radiasi dosis rendah. Efek biologik radiasi dosisrendah khususnya efek sitogenetik telah dipelajari pada penduduk di beberapa daerah HNBR didunia. Tulisan ini melaporkan hasil studi sitogenetik khususnya aberasi kromosom pada sellimfosit darah tepi penduduk di Kabupaten Mamuju, Sulawesi Barat, yang mempunyai tingkatpaparan radiasi alam relatif tinggi di Indonesia. Pemeriksaan aberasi kromosom dilakukandengan teknik Giemsa dan fluoresence in situ hybridization terhadap sampel darah pendudukyang telah dibiakkan dalam media pertumbuhan. Hasil penelitian tidak menunjukkan adanyaperbedaan nyata frekuensi aberasi kromosom pada sel limfosit penduduk daerah radiasi alamtinggi dan latar normal. Terdapat indikasi adanya fenomena respon radioadaptif pada pendudukdi Kabupaten Mamuju yang perlu diteliti lebih lanjut.

Kata kunci : dosis rendah, aberasi kromosom, HNBR, Mamuju

ABSTRACT

CYTOGENETIC RESPONSE OF THE RESIDENTS OF HIGH NATURAL RADIATIONAREA IN KABUPATEN MAMUJU, SULAWESI BARAT. People in the world are exposed tobackground radiation from natural sources both internally and externally. Total exposure tonatural radiation in areas of normal background averages 2.4 mSv per year, while the area thathas total exposure to natural radiation up to 20 mSv or more is categorized as the High NaturalBackground Radiation (HNBR). Such radiation level of HNBR is considered as low doseradiation.The biological effects of low dose radiation, especially cytogenetic effects, have beenextensively studied on the habitants of several HNBR areas in the world. This paper reports theresults of cytogenetic study, especially chromosome aberrations, in peripheral blood lymphocytecells of the residents in Kabupaten Mamuju, West Sulawesi, which relatively has high level ofnatural radiation in Indonesia. Chromosome aberration examinations were performed usingGeimsa staining method and fluorescence in situ hybridization painting technique after culturingthe blood samples of the residents in enriched growth media. The results did not indicatesignificant difference on the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes ofpeople who live in HNBR area and that who live in normal natural radiation area. It is suggestedthat there is an indication of radioadaptive response phenomena in Kabupaten Mamuju peoplethat needs further investigation.

Keywords: low dose, chromosome aberration, HNBR, Mamuju


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