Mukhsinun Hadi Kusuma, Anhar Riza Antariksawan, Giarno Giarno, Dedy Haryanto, Surip Widodo



The latest accident in Japan's nuclear power station became a valuable experience to start engaging passive cooling systems (PCS) more aggressively to improve safety aspects in nuclear power reactors being studied in Indonesia. This investigation is related to the U-shaped heat pipe (UHP) research as PCS of water in the cooling tank (CT). The objective of this research is to study the thermal characteristics of UHP as PCS in the CT. The experiment on small-scale UHP and simulation with RELAP5 code has been conducted to understand the performance of UHP. The experiment results of the small-scale UHP model will be used as a basic understanding of simulating and designing a UHP with big scaling. The study result showed the highest thermal performance of UHP was obtained when it operated on the higher temperature of heat load and higher air cooling velocity. The more UHPs inserted into the cooling pool, the more heat that can be discharged into the environment. This result also shows promising use of UHP for CT PCS. The use of UHP as PCS can enhance the safety aspect of the nuclear reactor, especially in station blackout event.

Full Text:



  1. Ha H., Lee S., Kim H. Optimal Design of Passive Containment Cooling System for Innovative PWR. Nucl. Eng. Technol. 2017. 49(5):941-952.
  2. Li Y., Zhang H., Xiao J., Travis J.R., Jordan T. Numerical Investigation of Natural Convection Inside the Containment with Recovering Passive Containment Cooling System using GASFLOW-MPI. Ann. Nucl. Energy. 2018. 114:1-10.
  3. Xing J., Song D., Wu Y. HPR1000: Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor with Active and Passive Safety. Engineering. 2016. 2(1):79-87.
  4. Sun D.C., Li Y., Xi Z., Zan Y.F., Li P.Z., Zhuo W.B. Experimental Evaluation of Safety Performance of Emergency Passive Residual Heat Removal System in HPR1000. Nucl. Eng. Des. 2017. 318
  5. Jouhara H., Chauhan A., Nannou T., Almahmoud S., Delpech B., Wrobel L.C. Heat Pipe Based Systems-Advances and Applications. Energy. 2017. 128:729-754.
  6. Nazarimanesh M., Yousefi T., Ashjaee M. Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Nanofluid on the Thermal Performance of Symmetric Sintered U Shaped Heat Pipe. Heat Mass Transf. 2016. 52(7):1255-1264.
  7. Wang Y., Wang J., He X., Duan J. Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Performance of a Heat Sink with U-shaped Heat Pipes. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2021. 186:116387.
  8. Hakim I.I., Sukarno R., Putra N. Utilization of U-shaped Finned Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger in Energy-efficient HVAC Systems. Therm. Sci. Eng. Prog. 2021.:100984.
  9. Luo Y., Wu G., Bai P., Wang H., Cai R., Tang Y., et al. Modeling and Experimental Analysis of U-shaped Segmented Unidirectional Heat Pipe Array Cogeneration Unit. Case Stud. Therm. Eng. 2021.:101074.
  10. Ye C., Zheng M.G., Wang M.L., Zhang R.H., Xiong Z.Q. The Design and Simulation of a New Spent Fuel Pool Passive Cooling System. Ann. Nucl. Energy. 2013. 58:124-131.
  11. Fu W., Li X., Wu X., Zhang Z. Investigation of a Long Term Passive Cooling System Using Two-phase Thermosyphon Loops for the Nuclear Reactor Spent Fuel Pool. Ann. Nucl. Energy. 2015. 85:346-356.
  12. Xiong Z., Wang M., Gu H., Ye C. Experimental Study on Heat Pipe Heat Removal Capacity for Passive Cooling of Spent Fuel Pool. Ann. Nucl. Energy. 2015. 83:258-263.
  13. Choi J., Lim C., Kim H. Fork-end Heat Pipe for Passive Air Cooling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Pool. Nucl. Eng. Des. 2021. 374:111081.
  14. Kusuma M.H., Putra N., Antariksawan A.R., Koestoer R.A., Widodo S., Ismarwanti S., et al. Passive Cooling System in a Nuclear Spent Fuel Pool Using a Vertical Straight Wickless-heat Pipe. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 2018. 126:162-171.
  15. Kusuma M.H., Putra N., Antariksawan A.R., Imawan F.A. Investigation of the Thermal Performance of a Vertical Two-phase Closed Thermosyphon as a Passive Cooling System for a Nuclear Reactor Spent Fuel Storage Pool. Nucl. Eng. Technol. 2017. 49(3):476-483.
  16. Kusuma M.H., Antariksawan A.R., Ismarwanti S., Juarsa M., Haryanto D., Widodo S., et al. Preliminary Experiment of U-Shaped Heat Pipe as Passive Cooling System in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cooling Tank. in: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2019. p. 22055.
  17. Gedik E. Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Performance of a Two-phase Closed Thermosyphon at Different Operating Conditions. Energy Build. 2016. 127:1096-1107.
  18. Sözen A., Menlik T., Gürü M., Boran K., Kılıç F., Aktaş M., et al. A Comparative Investigation on the Effect of Fly-ash and Alumina Nanofluids on the Thermal Performance of Two-phase Closed Thermo-syphon Heat Pipes. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2016. 96:330-337.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

PTKRN Digital Library Mendeley