Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah, Muhammad Subekti, Surip Widodo, Hendro Tjahjono, Susyadi Susyadi, Puradwi Ismu Wahyono, Anwar Budianto



Pebble bed reactor design, classified as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), is currently being part of BATAN main program to promote nuclear energy by starting the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) program since 2015. Starting from 2018, the detail design document has to be submitted into nuclear regulatory body for further assessment. Therefore results of design analysis have to be supplemented by performing a design evaluation, which can be achieved by developing the model of the EPR.  The development is performed using RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod.3.4 as the thermal-hydraulic analysis code validated for the light-water reactor having module for the pebble fuel element and non-condensable helium gas. Methodology of model development consists of defining the helium flow path inside the reactor pressure vessel, modelling of pebble bed core including its power distribution, and modelling of reflector components to be simulated under 100 % core power. The developed EPR model results in design parameters, which confirm the main thermal data of the EPR, including the pebble and reflector temperatures. The peak pebble temperature is calculated to be 1,375 °C, which requires further investigations in the model accuracy, since the reference values are around 1,015 °C, even it is below the pebble temperature limit. For safety analysis, the EPR model can be used under nominal core flow condition, which produces more conservative results by paying attention on the RELAP5 specific modules for the pebble bed-gas cooled system.

Keywords: experimental power reactor, development, RELAP5, steady-state

Full Text:



  1. Kadak A.C. The status of the US high-temperature gas reactors. Eng. 2016. 2: 119 – 123.
  2. Zhou X.W., Tang Y. P., Lu Z. M., Zhang J., and Liu B. Nuclear graphite for high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Carbon. 2017. 124: 725 – 727.
  3. Kadak A.C. A future for nuclear energy: pebble bed reactors. Int. J. Crit. Infrastruct. 2005. 1
  4. Setiadipura T., Bakhri S., Sunaryo G. R., and Wisnubroto D. S. Cooling passive safety features of reaktor daya Eksperimental. In: International Conference on Thermal Science and Technology (ICTST) 2017, AIP Conf. Proc. 1984, 020034-1–020034-9;, Published by AIP Publishing.
  5. Zhang Z., Dong Y., Li F., Zhang Z., Wang H., Huang X., Li H., Liu B., Wu X., Wang H., Diao X., Zhang H., and Wang J. The Shandong Shidao Bay 200 MWe high-temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble-bed module (HTR-PM) demonstration power plant: an engineering and technological innovation. Eng. 2016. 2: 112 – 118.
  6. Scari M. E., Costa A. L, Pereira C., Velasquez C. E., and Veloso M. A. F. HTR steady state and transient thermal analyses. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 2016. 41: 7192 – 7196.
  7. Lee W. J., Jeong J. J., Lee S. W., and Chang J. Development of MARS-GCR/V1 for thermal-hydraulic safety analysis of gas cooled reactor systems. Nucl. Eng. Technol. 2005. 37: 587 – 594
  8. International Atomic Energy Agency. Evaluation of high temperature gas cooled reactor performance: benchmark analysis related to the PBMR-400, PBMM, GT-MHR, HTR-10 and the ASTRA critical facility. IAEA-TECDOC-1694. Vienna. 2013
  9. Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional. Preparation of preliminary engineering design document for Experimental Power Reactor (RDE) – Optional Report Conceptual Design Reactor Core, Document No. RDE/DS-WBS02-201-004, 12 December 2015.
  10. Allison C.M. and Hohorst J. K. Project report: role of RELAP/SCDAPSIM in nuclear safety. Sci. Technol. Nucl. Ins. 2010. Article ID 425658. doi:10.1155/2010/425658.
  11. Ekariansyah A.S. and Widodo S. Benchmarking of experimental setup for pressure drop calculation in a packed pebble bed using RELAP5. In: Symposium of Emerging Nuclear Technology and Engineering Novelty (SENTEN 2018), Palembang. 2018.
  12. Abdulmohsin R. S. and Al Dahhan M. H. Pressure drop and fluid flow characteristics in a packed pebble bed reactor. Nucl. Technol. 2017. 00: 1-9.
  13. Seeger O., Laurie M., El Abjani A., Ejton J., Boudaud D., Freis D., Carbol P., Rondinella V.V., Futterer M., and Allelein H. J. KuFA safety testing of HTR fuel pebbles irradiated in the high flux reactor in Petten, Nucl. Eng. Des. 2015. 306: 59-68.
  14. Akaho E. H. K. and Asamoah M. Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer model for the pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor. Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Tech. 2012. 4: 1659 – 1666.
  15. Ekariansyah A.S., Widodo S., Tjahjono H., Susyadi, Wahyono P.I., Budianto A. Preliminary analysis of core temperature distribution of experimental power reactor using RELAP5. Tri Dasa Mega. 2018. 20: 159 – 165.
  16. Zhou Y., Wu M., Zhu S., Ma Y., Li F., Shi L., Dong Y. Thermal-hydraulic simulation of the primary loop of the HTR. Nucl. Safety Sim. 2010. 1: 366 – 373.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

PTKRN Digital Library Ristek Mendeley