Indikasi Sesar Naik di Plampang, Pulau Sumbawa Berdasarkan Analisis Gempa Bumi 13 Juni 2020

Priyobudi Priyobudi, Mohamad Ramdhan

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17146/eksplorium.2021.42.2.6273

Sari


ABSTRAK. Keberadaan sesar aktif dengan pola sesar naik di daerah Plampang berhasil diungkap dari sebaran hiposenter terelokasi, hasil inversi momen tensor, dan pemodelan perubahan tegangan Coulomb. Studi ini juga berhasil mengungkap sumber gempa pada sesar aktif tersebut dengan kedalaman relatif dangkal yang bisa menjadi ancaman di Pulau Sumbawa jika magnitudo maksimumnya rilis di masa yang akan datang. Hasil relokasi hiposenter menunjukkan sebaran episenter berarah barat daya–timur laut. Hal ini didukung juga oleh hasil inversi momen tensor yang menunjukkan bidang sesar berarah barat daya–timur laut (N2240E) dengan dip cukup curam (490). Penampang seismisitas vertikal pada arah dip menunjukkan adanya pola sesar naik yang semakin landai seiring bertambahnya kedalaman. Bidang sesar yang landai menunjukkan struktur decollement pada kedalaman 10–15 km dan berangsur menjadi curam sebagai struktur splay fault pada kedalaman 0–10 km. Hal tersebut konsisten dengan hasil inversi momen tensor yang menunjukkan mekanisme pergerakan sesar naik terjadi pada kedalaman 7 km. Pemodelan perubahan tegangan Coulomb menunjukkan adanya penambahan stress di luar area bidang sesar sehingga memicu terjadinya aftershocks. Sebaran gempa susulan menunjukkan adanya bidang sesar hipotetik dengan panjang 19 km dan lebar 12 km. Sesar sebesar ini berpotensi membangkitkan gempa dengan kekuatan Mw 6,4. Gempa Sumbawa 13 Juni 2020 dengan magnitudo M 5,3 disebabkan oleh sebagian kecil aktivitas dari bidang sesar tersebut.

ABSTRACT. The existence of an active fault with a reverse fault mechanism in the Plampang area is successfully delineated from the distribution of the relocated hypocenter, the moment tensor inversion, and the Coulomb stress changes. This study also reveals the source of the earthquake in the active fault with a relatively shallow depth which can be a threat on Sumbawa Island if the maximum magnitude is released in the future. Seismicity from hypocenter relocation shows the distribution of the epicenter with a southwestnortheast direction. It is also supported by the moment tensor inversion result which shows the fault plane trending southwestnortheast (N2240E) with a steep dip (490). The vertical section of seismicity in the dip direction shows that the slope of the plane has a lower angle with increasing depth. The lower angle of a fault plane shows a decollement structure at a depth of 1015 km and gradually becomes steep as a splay fault structure at a depth of 010 km. It is consistent with the result of moment tensor inversion which shows the mechanism of a reverse fault that occurred at a depth of 7 km. The Coulomb stress changes show the stress increasing outside the fault plane area, which triggers aftershocks. The distribution of aftershocks shows a hypothetical fault plane of 19 km long and 12 km wide. A fault of this size has the potential to generate an earthquake with a magnitude maximum of Mw 6.4. The Sumbawa earthquake on June 13, 2020, having M 5.3 was caused by a small part of the activity from the fault.


Kata Kunci


hiposenter, momen tensor, perubahan tegangan Coulomb, decollement, splay fault

Teks Lengkap:

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Referensi


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